Medical procedures are used for early-stage colon cancer. Usually, the tumor is removed along with part of the colon and nearby lymph nodes.
Radiation therapy may be given after surgery treatment therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. It may also be given along with rays before surgery treatment therapy to reduce tumor size.
Chemo is not usually used in early-stage cancer of the colon, but is commonly used to treat early-stage rectal cancer. It is often along with radiotherapy.
Experiments are available for individual levels of colon cancer.
Colorectal Cancer Stages and Treatment Options
There are several methods for setting up colon cancer. The older system, known as Dukes', categorizes four basic stages: A, B, C, and D. The newer TMN system evaluates the development (T), lymph node (N), and how far the cancer has distribute or metastasized (M). The results of TMN are combined to figure out the level of the cancer.
Stage 0 (Carcinoma in situ)
In level 0, cancer cells are fully contained in the innermost lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum, and have not yet invaded the surfaces of the colon.
Way to level 0 cancer usually contains surgery treatment of the polyp (polypectomy) during colonoscopy.
In level I, the cancer has distribute through the mucosa of the colon surfaces into center levels of cells.
Way to level I contains resection of the tumor. The development may be removed along with part of the colon (colectomy).
In level IIA, the cancer has distribute beyond the center levels to the outer cells of the colon or rectum. In level IIB, the cancer has penetrated through the colon or rectum surfaces into nearby cells or parts of the body system.
Treatment for level II cancer contains surgery treatment resection. Radiation treatment after surgery treatment therapy (adjuvant chemotherapy) plus radiation is regarded traditional technique to level II rectal cancer, but is under debate for level II cancer of the colon.
In level III, lymph nodes are involved but not distant sites. Stage IIIA and IIIB cancer has distribute to as many as 3 lymph nodes. Stage IIIC cancer contains 4 or more lymph nodes.
Treatment for level III cancer of the colon contains surgery treatment therapy and adjuvant radiotherapy with the FOLFOX regimen (5-FU, leucovorin, oxaliplatin). For patients with level III rectal cancer, therapy contains radiotherapy and chemo, either before or following surgery treatment therapy.
Stage IV is metastasized cancer. The cancer has distribute to shut by lymph nodes and to other parts of the body system such as the liver or lungs.
Way to level IV cancer may sometimes include surgery treatment therapy. When cancer has distribute, surgery treatment therapy to remove or bypass obstructions in the intestine may be performed. In these circumstances, surgery treatment therapy is regarded palliative in that it may improve signs but will not lead to cure. In some cases, surgery treatment therapy may also be performed to remove tumors in areas that the cancer has distribute, such as the liver, ovaries, or lung.
Radiation treatment is traditional technique to metastasized cancer. In advanced colon cancer, radiotherapy is either given directly into the arteries of the liver body organ when it is involved or intravenously (through a vein) with 5-FU and leucovorin. The targeted therapy biologic drug bevacizumab may also be added. Other alternative radiotherapy choices are capecitabine, or irinotecan along with cetuximab. Chemo may be used in place of radiotherapy or in combination with it. Studies indicate that radiotherapy offers only a modest improvement in survival, but may help reduce signs.